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Several Brazilian writers were awarded with the highest prize of the Portuguese language. The Brazilian spellings of certain words differ from those used in Portugal and the other Portuguese-speaking countries. Some of these differences are merely orthographic, but others reflect true differences in pronunciation. In many cases, the letters c or p in syllable-final position have become silent in all varieties of Portuguese, a common phonetic change in Romance languages cf. Spanish objeto , French objet.

Accordingly, they stopped being written in BP compare Italian spelling standards , but continued to be written in other Portuguese-speaking countries. Only in a small number of words is the consonant silent in Brazil and pronounced elsewhere or vice versa, as in the case of BP fato , but EP facto. However, the new Portuguese language orthographic reform led to the elimination of the writing of the silent consonants also in the EP, making now the writing system virtually identical in all of the Portuguese-speaking countries,.

However, BP has retained those silent consonants in a few cases, such as detectar "to detect". These spelling differences are due to genuinely different pronunciations. The variant spellings are necessary in those cases because the general Portuguese spelling rules mandate a stress diacritic in those words, and the Portuguese diacritics also encode vowel quality.


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By Portuguese spelling rules, that sound can be written either as j favored in BP for certain words or g favored in EP. The linguistic situation of the BP informal speech in relation to the standard language is controversial. Accordingly, the formal register of Brazilian Portuguese has a written and spoken form. The written formal register FW is used in almost all printed media and written communication, is uniform throughout the country, and is the "Portuguese" officially taught at school. The spoken formal register FS is basically a phonetic rendering of the written form; it is used only in very formal situations like speeches or ceremonies, by educated people who wish to stress their education, or when reading directly out of a text.

While FS is necessarily uniform in lexicon and grammar, it shows noticeable regional variations in pronunciation. However, the theory of diglossia in BP is met with some opposition [ from whom? It describes, in fact, situations in which there are two often related languages: a formal one and an informal one, which is the spoken tongue.

Opponents of the diglossia theory argue that the various aspects that separate the informal register and the formal one in Brazil cannot be compared with the numerous differences between standard Italian or German and the national dialects with which they share speakers. The discussion is framed around whether informal BP is different enough from the standard in order to be considered a low-prestige language in its own right, spoken by the Brazilian people, who must learn a language that is not their own, the formal Portuguese language.

In opposition to this theory, the following arguments have been used [ by whom? The main and most general i. The vocabularies of Brazilian and European Portuguese also differ in a couple of thousand words, many of which refer to concepts that were introduced separately in BP and EP.

However, BP generally adopts foreign words with minimal adjustments, while EP tends to apply deeper morphological changes. Finally, one dialect often borrowed a word while the other coined a new one from native elements.

dias do lixo parte 1 - Pacheco Pereira

So one has, for example. Modern linguistic studies have shown that Brazilian Portuguese is a topic -prominent or topic- and subject-prominent language. With this girl I don't know what to do. This kind of construction, however, is sometimes used in European Portuguese poetry, usually for keeping the metre , and is considered a case of Anacoluthon anacoluto in Portuguese.

Brazilian grammars traditionally treat this structure likewise, rarely mentioning such a thing as topic. Nevertheless, the so-called anacoluthon has won a new dimension in Brazilian Portuguese, leaving the realm of poetry to be extensively used in colloquial language, even though most people are not aware of it. In colloquial language, this kind of anacoluto may even be used when the subject itself is the topic, only to add more emphasis to this fact, e. This structure highlights the topic, and could be more accurately translated as "As for this girl, she usually takes care of abandoned dogs".

The usage of this construction is particularly common with compound subjects , as in, e. This happens because the traditional syntax Eu e ela fomos passear places a plural-conjugated verb immediately following an argument in the singular, which may sound "ugly" to Brazilian ears. The redundant pronoun thus clarifies the verbal inflection in such cases.

The same restriction applies to several other uses of the gerund: BP uses ficamos conversando "we kept on talking" and ele trabalha cantando "he sings while he works" , but rarely ficamos a conversar and ele trabalha a cantar as is the case in most varieties of EP. In general, the dialects that gave birth to Portuguese had a quite flexible use of the object pronouns in the proclitic or enclitic positions. In Classical Portuguese, the use of proclisis was very extensive, while, on the contrary, in modern European Portuguese the use of enclisis has become indisputably majoritary.

Brazilians normally place the object pronoun before the verb proclitic position , as in ele me viu "he saw me". In many such cases, the proclisis would be considered awkward or even grammatically incorrect in EP, in which the pronoun is generally placed after the verb enclitic position , namely ele viu-me. However, in verb expressions accompanied by an object pronoun, Brazilians normally place it amid the auxiliary verb and the main one ela vem me pagando but not ela me vem pagando or ela vem pagando-me.

In some cases, in order to adapt this use to the standard grammar, some Brazilian scholars recommend that ela vem me pagando should be written like ela vem-me pagando as in EP , in which case the enclisis could be totally acceptable if there would not be a factor of proclisis. Soldiers, settlers, and administrators all spoke Latin, and although Rome did not care what language subjected peoples actually spoke — learning Latin was considered a privilege rather than a duty — the prestige of Roman civilization, manifested by an impressive network of paved roads, bridges, aqueducts, temples, theaters, public baths, circuses, and an administrative organization unparalleled in the ancient world, led the original inhabitants of Hispania to adopt the language and customs of the Romans.

The ensuing isolation led to increasing regional differentiation in the Latin spoken in Hispania and elsewhere. Beginning in the first decade of the fifth century, a series of invasions by Germanic tribes such as the Suevi, the Vandals, and the Alans culminated, in the early sixth century, with the arrival of the Visigoths. These either enslaved, killed off or drove away their predecessors, with the exception of the Suevi, who maintained a small kingdom in Gallaecia until about , when they too were conquered by the Visigoths.

By the end of the sixth century the Visigothic kingdom, which had Toledo as its capital, extended all over the peninsula, though its suzerainty over the Basque Country remained nominal, as the Roman domination had been — a factor that permitted survival of the Basque language until our days. Even in the heyday of the Roman Empire the speech of the inhabitants of the peninsula was essentially popular Latin, which differed noticeably from the literary Latin we learn at school.

By the end of the sixth century, however, that speech had changed even further, into something considerably different from Latin as it was still spoken and written, as a learned language, by a literate minority associated primarily with clerical life. In other words, everyone spoke Romance, and a few, usually members of the clergy, also learned to speak and write medieval Latin. By the peninsula had been divided Map 1. The latter area, which included a few strongholds in the mountains of Asturias, the Basque region, and a string of fortifications called the Spanish March, set up by Charlemagne — along the Pyrenees, would eventually be divided into several Christian kingdoms and counties which, for the next seven centuries, fought to reconquer the territory lost to the invaders.

Also in , the Christians holding out in the mountains of Asturias achieved a small victory over a detachment of Moors in a skirmish celebrated in legend as the battle of Covadonga, traditionally held to be the beginning of the reconquest which culminated in the fall of Granada to the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella in In the Christian area, starting at the Mediterranean end of the Pyrenees, in the region around Barcelona, there arose Catalan, which was carried to Valencia, Alicante, and the Balearic Islands in the first half or the thirteenth century by military conquest.

Immediately to the west a group of closely related vernaculars known to linguists as Navarro-Aragonese developed. In an initially small area around and north of Burgos, there was another Romance known as Castilian, which in time would extend over most of the peninsula and develop into modern Spanish. To the west of Castilian there developed a Romance speech known as Leonese, or Asturian-Leonese, parent of the various bables, as the vernaculars spoken in Asturias are still called.

Finally, in the northwest corner of the peninsula, in the former Roman province of Gallaecia, was born the vernacular which linguists refer to as Galician-Portuguese, the parent of modern Galician as well as of Portuguese.

Comparison of Portuguese and Spanish

By the eleventh century the kingdom of Castile Sp Castilla had acquired hegemony over Leon and Galicia and was leading the reconquest of Muslim Spain. Another consequence was the presence of French noblemen who came to seek fortune in frequent campaigns waged against the Muslim states of Al-Andalus.

One of these French adventurers, Count Raymond of Burgundy, a region in central eastern France, in married Urraca a charming name meaning 1. After several major victories and setbacks, the drive southward was completed by Afonso III, the fifth Portuguese king, who conquered the Algarve in Portuguese independence also blocked the expansion of Castilian into the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, notwithstanding the union of the Portuguese and Spanish crowns from to , which had no linguistic sequels.

From the late twelfth century to the early fourteenth, Galician-Portuguese — a conveninent term limited to the period when the two languages had not yet become clearly differentiated — was used in a poetic style which imitated, in 12 1 The Portuguese language in the world form as well as content, the lyric poetry cultivated in the courts of Provence. As regards prose, although the first document in a language recognizable as Portuguese is dated from about or 5. This preference was made mandatory in by his successor, Dinis, himself a renowned poet in the GalicianPortuguese tradition.

scum bag - Translation into Portuguese - examples English | Reverso Context

The end of the fifteenth century and the first half of the sixteenth was a period of intense change. A major political event was the end of Muslim sovereignty in Spain with the capture of the kingdom of Granada by the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, in In the same year these monarchs promulgated the expulsion of all Jews who would not convert to Catholicism, some sixty thousand of whom sought refuge in Portugal, where they soon had again to choose between conversion or expulsion.

In Luther reportedly nailed his ninety-five theses onto the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, thus launching the Reformation. In Garcia de Resende — published the Cancioneiro Geral, a compilation of courtly poetry.

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Change, however, was in motion for both the culture and the language of Portugal. There was enough change in the air to attract the Inquisition, introduced in to protect souls by burning unrepentant bodies and heretical books, for which an underground market was made possible by the movable type press, developed by Gutenberg in Among books unwelcome in the peninsular kingdoms were those by the great humanist thinker Erasmus?

The prevailing eagerness for new things clamored for a renovated language, and as it adjusted to new cultural realities, Portuguese shaped a modern image for itself.